historiography

The power of the great books

It will come as no surprise to anyone who has been around small children that humans naturally crave the security of a familiar and nonthreatening environment. While this innate human tendency is most pronounced in small children, it follows all of us into adulthood and throughout our lives. In the same way that a child might bring a beloved toy or blanket along with him to act as a source of comfort in an unfamiliar environment, so most adults choose to partake of books and television which reinforce the views they already hold. The Pew Research Center, for example, discovered in a recent study that most political liberals in the United States listen to, watch, and read their news from media outlets that skew to the left while American political conservatives tend to consume media with a distinctively conservative bent.

It is a unique strength of an educational program based in the great books that the student is required by the very nature of the great books themselves to broaden his mind by reading literature that, often even when he agrees with the author, presents a challenge to his presuppositions and preconceived notions, and sometimes even his most certain convictions. While the students’ beliefs will not necessarily be changed, as beliefs are terribly difficult things to change in a person, there is no doubt that they will be clarified and that the students will walk away with a greater sense of the complexity of a topic and the diversity of positions available on that topic. In addition, he will have developed an appreciation for even those positions to which he is opposed, recognizing in them some aspect of or commentary upon the universal human condition.

This is an accurate summary of my own experience over the past semester as I have had the opportunity to immerse myself in those great books which take up the topic of history. Having read widely in the history of thought on history over these four months, I have been able to hear from some of the greatest minds of the Western tradition their thoughts on this uniquely Western idea that is history, allowing them to speak for themselves and to elucidate upon their own experience of and meditations upon the subject.

The range and diversity of possible positions has been one rather jarring feature of this reading. Given the great differences between, for example, St. Augustine, on the one hand, and Karl Marx on the other, it has occasionally been difficult to understand how each of them could be talking about the same thing. While Augustine sees the guiding hand of providence behind each movement in history, Marx sees instead the interplay of economic, and therefore solely material, forces, a wholly different moving force in history. Yet again, there is Niccolo Machiavelli, a thinker of equal eminence and erudition when compared to either Augustine or Marx, who raises his hand to object to both and assert rather that Fate of any sort can indeed be resisted by any man whose “valour has … been prepared to resist her” and whose “defences have … been raised to constrain her.” Still more thinkers, of no less excellence and import, might chime in with any number of other positions on the matter, running across a great array from freedom to fatalism, each arguing in favor of his position with great gusto and compelling evidence.

As Leo Strauss noted in his 1959 essay “What is Liberal Education?,” it comes as a surprise to some, upon approaching the great books, to realize that “the greatest minds do not all tell us the same things regarding the most important themes; the community of the greatest minds is rent by discord and even by various kinds of discord.” It might, at this point, be tempting to fall into the sleepy indifference of relativism or, for those with a personality more caffeinated than that of the relativist, to abandon the great books altogether as hopelessly confused and irreconcilable. Hopelessly confused and irreconcilable they may be, but the answer is certainly not the slumber of relativism nor the despair of intellectual defeat.

On the contrary, in encountering this great diversity of well-reasoned opinions on the topic of history I have been afforded a tremendous opportunity to refine my own viewpoint by taking into consideration the various challenges and alternatives to it. In his Beyond Good and Evil, Friedrich Nietzsche asserted that “it has become clear to me what every great philosophy so far has been: namely, the personal confession of its author and a kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir.” While it may be going too far to claim, as Nietzsche does, that all philosophy is really biography, there is a certain element of truth in this claim. Stated with less polemic and more fairness, it might be said that all philosophy is the result of a particular individual’s attempt to extrapolate from his unique subjective experience of human life in the world to the universal, general, and objective nature of human life in the world. This is true also of one’s philosophy of history.

Over the past 16 weeks, I have taken up and considered the philosophy of history espoused by a significant number of admirable thinkers, including ancient Greeks like Plato, Herodotus, and Aristotle, Romans like Marcus Aurelius, Christians of the Middle Ages such as Augustine and Thomas Aquinas, and finally early modern and modern thinkers of great diversity, including Marx, Sir James George Frazer, Johan Huizinga, Pascal, and Karl Barth. It would be difficult to enumerate and elucidate the effect each has individually had upon my thought on history. Collectively, however, even without my thought on history having dramatically changed during this period of study, their effect has been tremendous. They have allowed me to recognize the limitations of my own worldview while opening my mind to the appreciation of others, and therefore of the human experience as a whole, and this is perhaps the most important thing any book, no matter how great, can do for a person.

Advertisements

Historical causation

In his discussion of the factors in historical causation, Christopher Dawson identified four primary factors, “(1) race, i.e., the genetic factor; (2) environment, i.e., the geographic factor; (3) function or occupation, i.e., the economic factor,” and, finally, (4) “thought, or the psychological factor.” Each of these factors has received some special emphasis at some epoch in the history of thought on historical causation. It is Dawson’s unique contribution to the field of thought on historical causation, however, to highlight the psychological factor as the decisive factor in the movements of history, as the human factor which unites and, in a sense, governs and directs the others.

Race, or the genetic factor, is the factor of historical causation which has received the greatest emphasis in the modern era, though it is by no means unique to the modern era. Aristotle, for example, says of “the poets” that “they thought that the barbarian and the slave were by nature one.” It was in the modern era, however, that race came to be identified by certain thinkers as the most central aspect of historical causation. The most extreme forms of the position which places race as the central determinative factor in historical causation have largely collapsed under the weight of the atrocities these theories have led to. For example, Alexander H. Stephen’s theory of the natural servility of those of African descent became an ex post facto justification for the existence of race-based chattel slavery in the American South. The most infamous example is the theory, generally associated with the Nazis but adopted more widely by eugenicists of various political stripes near the turn of the 20th century, of a malignancy transmitted via the blood of particular ethnic groups, an idea which counts the Holocaust among its consequences. Although undue focus upon the genetic factor in historical causation has largely been discredited through its own horrendous consequences, this theory has returned with renewed vigor in unexpected places, as among those who argue that an innate predisposition toward certain sexual behaviors implies the necessity of social acceptance of said behaviors.

A panicked reaction against the consequences of the racialist theory of historical causation has led to a renewed emphasis upon the two other material factors, the geographic and the economic. The geographic factor undoubtedly has the longest pedigree of the two. In his History, for example, Herodotus, writing in the 5th century BC, linked the origins of Egyptian culture, including their language and religion, to the geography of the land they inhabited and its environment. One of the most popular of the modern reiterations of this ancient idea of geographic determinism is that of Jared Diamond in his Guns, Germs, and Steel. In his 1997 book and eponymous 2005 television documentary series, Diamond sets out to answer a question put to him by a native of New Guinea, though perhaps more succinctly articulated nearly a century prior by W. E. B. Du Bois in his The Souls of Black Folk, “Why has civilization flourished in Europe, and flickered, flamed, and died in Africa?” In the wake of the racialist ideologies of the 19th and early 20th centuries, Diamond merely frantically replaces one set of material factors (genes) with another (geography), arguing eloquently but not persuasively for an exclusion of the human factor from the central position.

The economic factor of historical causation is of a decidedly modern origin. Its origins are contemporaneous with the rise of race to prominence as the central factor in historical causation. Unlike race, however, the economic factor has maintained its popularity as a material explanation for historical causation to the present day. Its most well-known and vociferous exponent, Karl Marx, argued that “the life-process of society … is based on the process of material production.” Having fixed economics as the final definitive factor in historical causation, Marx proceeded to dismiss all other aspects of a society, including its religious and political systems, insisting that far from possessing any causative or explanatory power they themselves were merely the derivative products of the economic factor. Marx’s explanation of all history through economic factors proved convincing enough to win over a great many of the leading intellectuals of the 20th century, including W. E. B. Du Bois, who, fairly late in his life, attempted to answer his question through applying the Marxist theory of material dialectic to race relations in the modern world.

Like the racial and geographic theories, however, Marx’s theory of economic causation in history reduces history to the merely material. Positing race, geography, or economy as the central causative factor in history displaces human life and its unique features, rational thought and spiritual insight, from their due place of centrality. This reduction to the merely material is largely a modern phenomenon. Even among those ancient thinkers who identified material factors of causation, there was rarely an outright exclusion of the human factor. Plato, for example, in his Laws, placed what is perhaps an undue emphasis on the geographic factor in his contention that a city near a “sea, and well provided with harbours, and an importing rather than a producing country” requires “some mighty saviour … and lawgivers more than mortal, if … [it] were ever to have a chance of preserving … [itself] from degeneracy and discordance of manners.” Yet even in this statement of the great effect of the geographic factor upon a state, Plato evinces a belief in the human factor of a “mighty saviour” and “lawgivers more than mortal” as the most decisive factor in the shaping of a people’s history.

It is precisely such great men whom Christopher Dawson pointed to as the most important factor in historical causation, reminding the modern world that it is not so much man who is subject to the material factors of race, geography, and economy, as it is man who works within the confines of these factors to reshape them and create new and great cultures. “Behind every civilization there is a vision,” he writes in his Progress and Religion, “a vision which may be the unconscious fruit of ages of common thought and action, or which may have sprung from the sudden illumination of a great prophet or thinker.” Underlying historical causation, says Dawson, creating and giving impulse to material factors is the human factor. Behind every great movement in history one will not find, if followed to its roots, a gene, a mountain, or an exchange of goods. Instead, one will discover the human will.

Review: Progress & Religion by Christopher Dawson

In this book, Dawson traces the history of Western civilization, focusing on the ideas of Christian religion and scientific progress, which he views as the distinctive ideas of Western Civilization. To these ideas, Dawson attributes the remarkable success of the West over the past several thousand years.

He begins with a treatment of the idea of progress in relation to sociology, history, and anthropology, explaining how each has worked, in turn, to undermine the essential foundations of Western Civilization. Dawson then moves to an earlier period in history and traces the rise of the various world cultures and world religions from their roots in creative cooperation with the environment through to the rise of civilizations. In the course of this explanation of the more general rise of culture, Dawson highlights the unique aspects of Western Civilization.

He then moves to a history of Europe specifically, again focusing on the dynamics of religion and progress. He explains the ways in which the specifically Christian ideas of history, science, and the Incarnation have been the defining influences on Western Civilization. He also explains the dissolution of these ideas beginning with the Enlightenment and the subsequent period of decline which Western Civilization has entered into.

Dawson concludes the book with a call to restore the Christian center of unity in Western Civilization, and thereby preserve our civilization. He writes that the West can once again restore its “vital rhythm and balance” if it again comes into contact with nature and with tradition, with those two great defining forces of all peoples.

In all of this, Dawson provides a necessary corrective to the misconceptions of our tradition and history rampant in academia today. He does an excellent job of addressing the unique features of the West. His call to restore the unity of Christendom is a call we in the West must hear before it is too late.

I recommend this book for anyone interesting in history, especially in historiography, and in the preservation of the greatness of Western Civilization.

Review: Dynamics of World History by Christopher Dawson

Christopher Dawson is perhaps the greatest historian of the 20th century, but one of the most frequently overlooked. In contrast to the dominant historiographies of the period, which placed emphasis on factors such as economics and race in the development of cultural life, Dawson instead emphasized the importance of the thought, the human element. Rather than seeing man as the product of his location, his genetics, or his work, as did so many historians of his time and as do so many of ours, Dawson instead saw culture as the product of man in creative cooperation with those factors.

For Dawson, the first and foremost element of this creative cooperation is religion. Religion, according to Dawson, proceeds from the way in which man confronts the environment into which he is placed and chooses to either cooperate with it or fight against it. From this, there ensues a process in which religion at first recognizes and reveres the power of nature. These nature religions, however, are eventually shown to be deficient in that nature is itself a deficient guide. Man, then, looks to heaven as a more sufficient guide, exposing the deficiencies of nature and seeking to bring himself and the entirety of creation into relation with and submission to this higher order. From this point many religions slip into a kind of world-denying gnosticism (i.e. Hinduism, et al.) or nihilism (i.e. Buddhism, et al.).

The unique strength of Christianity in this regard, however, is the idea of the Incarnation, which has reconciled the material and spiritual orders, forbidding either the nature-worship of the primitive religions or the life-denying escapism of the spiritual religions. By bringing the two into harmony, Christianity has opened Europe especially to the universality of the human experience and the beauties of this world when in proper relation to the higher order.

Dawson’s theories are a necessary and timely corrective to the materialistic determinism of Marxism, genetics, nationalism, and other modern movements. What he presents is, properly speaking, a coherent Christian historiography which, while drawing on the historians of Christianity’s past (St. Augustine most especially), also acknowledges the contributions of and provides a rebuttal to later non-Christian or post-Christian developments.

This book in particular is a worthy introduction to Dawson’s ideas, as it presents a number of essays, articles, and selections taken from other of Dawson’s works. I recommend this book for anyone interested in history and the restoration of the proper perspective of and in Western Civilization.

Review: Students Guide To Study Of History: History Guide

Students Guide To Study Of History: History Guide
Students Guide To Study Of History: History Guide by John A. Lukacs

My rating: 4 of 5 stars

This short little book is a succinct and insightful introduction to the study of history for a student who is new to and considering pursuing the discipline. Lukacs explains in simple terms the importance of history, its place in the wider scope of human knowledge, and how it has been and should be approached by those interested in it.

This book is very helpful and valuable for someone considering entering into historical studies and/or becoming a professional historian. Lukacs provides bits of wisdom to the beginner that many do not realize until they are deep into their studies. In this, the book provides a head start into the study of history.

Near the close of the book Lukacs also provides a small treasure trove of suggested readings in the historians of ages past as well as of historians who study those ages. His wisdom and this list should more than get a beginning student of history started down the never ending road of learning and loving history.

View all my reviews