I have to begin this post by apologizing to all who follow my blog for not blogging regularly over the last few months. This is especially true of neglecting the timetable I set for my reading and blogging about the 10-year reading plan for the Great Books of the Western World. I do, however, have a good excuse! The vast majority of my time this summer went to writing and revising (and revising [and revising (and etc.)]) my MA thesis on W. E. B. Du Bois’s ideas about education and the application that might be made of them to educating disadvantaged youth in the 21st century. I have (finally) finished the writing and revision process (for the most part) and will be defending my thesis on the evening of August 6, which I am very excited about.
As a result of the strenuous efforts of thesis writing and revision, I have been unable to keep up with the schedule I set for following the 10-year reading plan and blogging about it. According to my estimate, I am about 4 months behind on reading and about 5 months behind on blogging. With that said, one of my goals is to catch up by the end of 2015, and this post is a good place to start. Because my reading of Plutarch’s lives of Lycurgus, Numa, Alexander, and Caesar was stretched over such a long period and because I am so far behind, I will not get especially deep into analysis and criticism. Instead, I want to offer just a few thoughts.
First, the theme I am just now beginning to pick up on for this year is one of leadership. “What does the ideal leader look like?,” seems to be one of the primary questions that is being asked. Of course, as a leader is first and foremost a role model, there is also the theme of “what does the ideal person look like?” Each of the four great men whose biographies we read in “March” were men who were simultaneously great and flawed. Caesar’s ambition is perhaps the most famous and obvious of the flaws of these four leaders, but one might also point to Alexander’s vainglory, Numa’s shortsightedness, and Lycurgus’s harshness, for example, as the flaws which eventually led to the dissolution of their respective peoples’ independence.
As a teacher, these are lessons I take to heart. For 190 days out of the year I have to stand in front of almost 100 students and throughout the school days am seen by hundreds more. Even “off-duty,” so to speak, and even with the size of Savannah, I frequently run into my students while out and about. Every mistake I make is, in a sense, an action that will become acceptable in their eyes. Every flaw I have has the potential to replicate itself through their respect for me and their following of the example that I role model. I’m no Alexander or Caesar, obviously, but I am a leader whose decisions have serious ramifications for the lives of those whom I teach, not to mention my own three young children.
As a husband and a father, I also see a great deal to learn from this month’s readings. As the head of my household and the leader of my family, the example that I set, the rules I enforce and the reasons why and how I enforce them, the care that I show, will all determine the course that my family will take. Arrogance, pride, shortsightedness, cruelty, impatience, and so on will each bring about their fruits within only a generation, as well each of their virtuous opposites.
It will be interesting to see whether and how this theme continues to be discussed and played out as we continue the readings this year. There are some very interesting examples of leaders, both magnificently great and tragically flawed, which we will see in this year’s coming readings. We move next to the Gospel of Matthew and the Acts of the Apostles, two biblical texts which trace the great leaders of the Christian tradition, beginning with the Lord Himself and moving to the Apostles, including especially Peter and Paul. I hope to finish this reading and have my blog post about these up by mid-August so that we can then move on to arguably the greatest medieval figure of the Christian tradition, St. Augustine.
If you have been keeping up with the readings or have read these biographies of Plutarch in the past, please leave a comment and let me know what you think! Do you see the same theme in this year’s readings? What lessons on leadership do you see in Plutarch and the other readings we’ve covered so far?
After the death of Julius Caesar, Caesar’s nephew Octavian rushed back to Rome. Octavian, who was 19 years old, had been away at school when his great-uncle was assassinated. Caesar had adopted Octavian as his son and left most of his wealth to Octavian in his will. Octavian knew that he had to make some fast and wise decisions in order to inherit his great-uncle’s power as well. There were two groups he knew he especially needed on his side in order to become powerful in Rome, the plebeians and the soldiers.
Immediately upon returning to Rome and receiving his inheritance, Octavian threw a large party for all of the plebeians of Rome. Using the money he had inherited from Caesar, Octavian bought enough food and drinks to last for ten days. He gave them out to the people of Rome. He also paid to have gladiator contests and other entertainment provided for the people during that time. The plebeians began to love him for his generosity in throwing a 10 day long party for them.
Octavian also vowed to punish those who had killed Caesar. Caesar’s soldiers, who were very angry that their leader had been murdered, were very happy about this. When the army found out that Caesar had appointed Octavian as his heir, the soldiers pledged their loyalty to Octavian.
The following year, 43 BC, with the army and the plebeians both on his side, Octavian demanded to be made a consul. The Senate agreed and allowed him to rule alongside two other men. The three consuls, however, quickly began to fight against each other. Octavian was able to defeat both of his rivals and become sole ruler of Rome. As he acquired more power for himself, however, he was careful not to make the same mistake his great-uncle had. He knew that if he demanded to be made king the Senate would try to kill him too.
Instead, Octavian made the people of Rome love him more and more by passing laws that made their lives more comfortable. He developed a network of roads made of concrete that allowed people to move easily from one place to another in the lands owned by Rome. He reformed the tax system so that it was more lenient on the poor. He started a police and firefighter system in the city of Rome. By far his most important achievement is the long peace that he brought to Rome. Rome had not gone a single century without a large war since its beginning. Through building a large and well-trained army, Octavian was able to start a 200 year period of peace for the Romans, called the Pax Romana, which means “Roman Peace.” During this time, the Romans fought no major wars and the people of Rome lived without fear of invasion by other nations.
As Octavian did more and more for the people of Rome, his popularity continued to grow. The people wanted to give him more power. Each time it was offered, however, Octavian would reject it at first, saying that he did not want all of that power for himself. When the Senate offered to make him dictator, as they had made his great-uncle before, Octavian instead chose to be called Princeps, which means “First Citizen.” Even without the title, however, Octavian still had all the power of a dictator. He also had one power even his uncle did not have: he had the power to select who would rule Rome after his death. Octavian was also given a new name at this time. He was called Augustus, which means “blessed” and “majestic.” It is for this reason that Augustus is considered by historians to have been the first Roman emperor. He reigned as emperor from 27 BC – 14 AD. His legacy, the Roman Empire, continued for more than a thousand years after his death.
1. What did Octavian do to make the plebeians of Rome love him?
2. Why did the army love Octavian?
3. What was Octavian’s named changed to in 27 BC?
One of the most influential politicians in the history of Rome was Julius Caesar. Caesar was able to gain power for himself through wise leadership, charisma, and cunning. Caesar’s actions changed Rome forever. To this day Caesar is remembered as one of the greatest Roman men.
Julius Caesar was born into a wealthy and powerful patrician family in 100 BC. His family was deeply involved in politics even before Caesar was born. His father was a member of the Senate and his uncle had served as a Consul. From an early age, Caesar’s parents trained him to become a great politician and leader. He was sent to the best schools in Rome, where he learned reading, writing, mathematics, and rhetoric.
Caesar was especially interested in rhetoric because he knew that speaking well was one of the most important parts of being a great leader. He wanted people to listen to him and to agree with him. He wanted to be able to persuade them using his speaking abilities. As a young man, Caesar sought out the best teachers he could find.
Once, while travelling to the home of a great rhetoric teacher on an island in the Mediterranean Sea, the ship Caesar was on was taken over by pirates. The pirates knew from Caesar’s clean and expensive clothing that he was from a wealth family. They decided to kidnap him and demand a ransom from his family. While he was a prisoner of the pirates, Caesar treated them as if they were his prisoners. He ordered them around and yelled at them to serve him. When the pirates laughed at Caesar, he promised that once he was free he would return and show them who was in charge.
After Caesar’s family paid the ransom money, Caesar went back to Rome and asked the Senate to provide him with a small navy. He told them that with enough ships and sailors he could take care of the problem of pirates on the Mediterranean. The Senate decided to let Caesar try to get rid of the pirates. Using the ships and sailors the Senate had given him, Caesar was able to track down the pirates who had kidnapped him. He captured them and had them all put to death. From then on, the Mediterranean Sea was safe for Romans to travel without fear of attacks by pirates.
Because of his excellent leadership abilities, the Senate appointed Caesar as governor of Spain. Once, while he was in Spain as governor, Caesar sat in his home with some friends reading a biography of Alexander the Great. As he read, Caesar began to cry. When his friends asked Caesar why he was crying, he responded, “By the time Alexander was my age he had conquered a great empire and I am only the governor of one province!”
Eventually, Caesar was able to convince the Senate to make him a Consul. Because there were already two Consuls, Caesar became the third Consul. The three Consuls – Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey – were together called the Triumvirate.
Even being a Consul was not good enough for Caesar, however. He wanted to prove himself on the battlefield by expanding Roman power to new territories. In 55 BC, Caesar invaded the island of Britain and tried to conquer it from the fierce barbarian people who lived there. Although Caesar won many battles during his war in Britain, he also lost many. He only wrote home to the people of Rome about his victories, though, and never told them about his defeats. He became known throughout Rome as a great military leader. He was once asked what his strategy in battle was, to which he responded, “Veni. Vidi. Vici.” In Latin this means, “I came. I saw. I conquered.”
In 53 BC, Crassus died in battle, leaving Caesar and Pompey as the two remaining Consuls. Pompey had also become Caesar’s son-in-law by marrying Caesar’s daughter. Caesar thought that his power was secure. The Senate, however, was becoming very afraid of Caesar’s increasing power. They were especially jealous of his popularity among the plebeians. They ordered that Caesar be arrested. Caesar’s own son-in-law and Co-Consul Pompey even decided to take the Senate’s side and arrest Caesar!
When Caesar heard about what was happening back in Rome, he rushed from Britain back to Italy. When he arrived in Italy, he had to make a very important decision. Everything on the Italian peninsula south of a river called the Rubicon was considered the land of the Senate. If he crossed that river and headed toward Rome he would be challenging the Senate to a battle. There would be a civil war in Rome with Caesar’s armies fighting on one side and the armies of the Senate, led by Pompey, on the other. If Caesar crossed the Rubicon, Rome would change forever and there would be no turning back. Caesar decided to cross the Rubicon on January 10, 49 BC. He headed for Rome.
Caesar’s well-trained and experienced legion easily made their way to the capital. As they arrived, Pompey fled the city in fear. He went to Egypt, hoping that the Egyptians would help him in his fight against Caesar. The rulers of Egypt were the descendants of Ptolemy, one of Alexander the Great’s generals. After Alexander’s death, Ptolemy had taken charge of Egypt and his family had ruled ever since. The two rulers of Egypt at that time, Cleopatra and her brother, also named Ptolemy, were fighting with each other over who would be the only ruler of Egypt. Both of them wanted Caesar, who was now the most powerful man in the world, on their side. Ptolemy thought that he would make Caesar happy by killing Pompey, so he had Pompey’s head cut off and sent back to Caesar as a gift. Ptolemy had made a horrible mistake, though. Although Pompey was Caesar’s political enemy, Pompey was still Caesar’s son-in-law and had been his friend for many years. Caesar was angry at Ptolemy and decided to take over Egypt.
Cleopatra saw this as her chance to get Caesar on her side. Like her ancestors before her, was a very clever ruler. She was also very beautiful. She spoke to Caesar and convinced him to help her get rid of her brother. Caesar agreed and used his armies to fight against Ptolemy. Ptolemy drowned in the Nile River during the battle, leaving Cleopatra as ruler of Egypt. Caesar fell in love with Cleopatra and even had a son with her, whom she named Caesarion. When Caesar returned to Rome the next year, Cleopatra went with him.
Caesar returned to Rome, he was greeted by cheering crowds. Even the Senate agreed to give him awards for his great military victories. He was given the title of dictator, meaning that he had all of the powers of a king but not the title. He used his new power to pass laws that reformed taxes and land policies in Rome. He also passed other laws that were helpful to the plebeians. One of the most important laws he passed was a change to the Roman calendar. Until then, the Roman calendar had been based on the cycles of the moon. Caesar decided to make the Roman calendar like the Egyptian calendar and base it on the time it takes for the earth to go around the Sun, which is about 365 days. This is why we have 365 days in a year on our calendar today.
Even all of this power and praise were not enough for Caesar, however. He did not want to just have the powers of a king, but to actually be called a king. He believed that the rulers of other nations and empires would not respect him unless he was a king. The Senate agreed to make him king and told him to come to the Senate building in the morning on March 15, 44 BC to be crowned. March 15 was called the Ides of March by the Romans. It is a date that is still remembered for what happened in the Senate building that day.
When Caesar arrived, the senators began to act strangely toward him. One of them pulled at his cloak, another bowed to him, and finally another senator ran at him with a dagger. Sixty senators and other patricians attacked Caesar. They stabbed him 23 times. They had secretly decided to assassinate him because they believed he had become too powerful and too ambitious. Finally, Caesar slipped and fell. As he lay on the floor bleeding from his many wounds, he looked up and saw one last senator, his best friend and most loyal supporter, a man named Brutus. As Caesar reached out to Brutus, Brutus also pulled out a knife and stabbed Caesar. Caesar’s last words were “Et tu, Brute?” In Latin this means, “And you too, Brutus?” Above where Caesar lay dead was a statue of Pompey.
1. What was the name of Julius Caesar’s son-in-law?
2. What river did Caesar cross, causing a civil war?
3. What Egyptian queen did Caesar fall in love with?
4. On what date was Caesar assassinated?
5. Who was the last person to stab Caesar?
Ambition – having or showing a strong desire or determination to be successful
Dictator – a ruler with total power over a country, typically one who has obtained power by force.
Legion – an army of about 5000 Roman soldiers
Rhetoric – the art of speaking and writing well
Christopher was almost certainly the greatest historian of the 20th century. In his thought and work, he overcame the materialist reductionism of both the racialists and the Marxists, who would find the driving impetus behind the movements of human history in biological and economy, respectively. Instead, Dawson, in continuity with the great Christian tradition of insisting upon man’s radical free will, posited that it is the spiritual element in man which is the great catalyst of history. For Dawson, the creative element — the “human factor,” as he calls it in some of his works, or, simply “religion” — is the most important factor in the shaping of civilizations.
With this as his basic premise, Dawson proceeded to open up the workings of history, beginning with his first book, an examination of prehistory in the light of his thesis. Unfortunately, some of the future planned volumes in a series that would cover the full scope of human history were never completed. Dawson was forced by the circumstances of World War II and the precipitate decline in interest in their own civilization among Westerners which followed the war to publish a long series of books in which he attempted a corrective to the course upon which our civilization had set itself.
Dawson noted that just as religion is the driving factor behind a civilization, so it must be that when a civilization abandons its religion en masse, as Western Civilization began to do in the early part of the 20th century, the civilization itself must cease or at least become something altogether different. Dawson’s belief was that the salvation of Western Civilization lay in education. If the young could be made to understand and appreciate their great heritage, there might yet be a future for this heritage and Western Civilization, the greatest that the world has seen, might yet produce more wonders. Only time will reveal whether Dawson was as right on this final prognosis as he was on so much else.
This short biography of Dawson by his daughter, Christina Scott, is at once both a touching and a fascinating read. One is allowed to peer into the personal living space of one of the most erudite scholars of the modern era, to see the forces in his life which shaped him, and to see his struggle with his own genius. Mrs. Scott’s love for her father, one that extends beyond filial duty into the realm of real and fervent admiration, is evident throughout. The attentive reader cannot help but come to partake of it.
The conclusion of the book with the first several pages of a planned autobiography by Dawson, a project which never extended beyond these first few pages is an addition that further strengthens this intimacy. In these short few pages, Dawson opens himself up in a way he could not do in his other works, whether academic in nature or oriented toward a more popular audience. The reader is given the ability to see into the earliest memories of Dawson, which again reveal the various influences his upbringing had upon him.
Every human life is a work of art. The artist is given the preexistent materials. In the case of a painting, the paints, the canvass, and the brushes. In the case of sculpting, the chisel and the stone. In life, this is, as Dawson himself pointed out, our biology, our geography, our economy, and our spiritual element. It is the task of the human being to take up the creative potential within the spiritual element and with this to shape the other, material factors. This is what Dawson did with his own life. He immersed himself within that world that is the peculiar domain of human beings, the world of ideas, and through his ideas worked to expose the means by which the wider world is shaped, thereby himself shaping this wider world.