Primary Source: Selection from the Code of Hammurabi (1772 BC) (Introduction to Western Civilization 2.2)

21. If anyone breaks a hole into a house to steal from it, he shall be put to death before that hole and be buried.

22. If anyone is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death.

195. If a son hits his father, his hands shall be cut off.

196. If a man puts out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out.

197. If he breaks another man’s bone, his bone shall be broken.

198. If he puts out the eye of a freed man, or break the bone of a freed man, he shall pay one gold mina.

199. If he puts out the eye of a man’s slave, or break the bone of a man’s slave, he shall pay one-half of its value.

200. If a man knocks out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out.

201. If he knocks out the teeth of a freed man, he shall pay one-third of a gold mina.

202. If any one hits the body of a man higher in rank than he, he shall receive sixty blows with an ox-whip in public.

203. If a free-born man hits the body of another free-born man of equal rank, he shall pay one gold mina.

204. If a freed man hits the body of another freed man, he shall pay ten shekels in money.

205. If the slave of a freed man hits the body of a freed man, his ear shall be cut off.

206. If during a quarrel one man hits another and wounds him, then he shall swear, “I did not injure him on purpose,” and pay the physicians.

207. If the man dies of his wound, he shall swear similarly, and if he was a free-born man, he shall pay half a mina in money.

208. If he was a freed man, he shall pay one-third of a mina.

209. If a man hits a free-born woman so that she loses her unborn child, he shall pay ten shekels for her loss.

210. If the woman dies, his daughter shall be put to death.

211. If a woman of the free class loses her child by being hit, he shall pay five shekels in money.

212. If this woman dies, he shall pay half a mina.

213. If he hits the maid-servant of a man, and she loses her child, he shall pay two shekels in money.

214. If this maid-servant dies, he shall pay one-third of a mina.

229 If a builder build a house for someone, and does not construct it properly, and the house which he built falls in and kills its owner, then that builder shall be put to death.

230. If it kills the son of the owner the son of that builder shall be put to death.

231. If it kills a slave of the owner, then he shall pay slave for slave to the owner of the house.

232. If it ruins the things inside, he shall make compensation for all that has been ruined, and inasmuch as he did not construct properly this house which he built and it fell, he shall rebuild the house from his own means.

 

Review Questions

1. What is the punishment if a man knocks out another man’s eye?

2. What is the punishment for a builder who builds a house that falls down and kills the owner?

3. Do you think the laws of the Code of Hammurabi are fair or unfair? Answer in a paragraph.

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