Primary Source: Xenophon’s “Memorabilia,” Book IV (ca. 370 BC) (Introduction to Western Civilization 3.11)

Socrates was so useful in all circumstances and in all ways, that any observer gifted with ordinary perception can see that nothing was more useful than the companionship of Socrates, and time spent with him in any place and in any circumstances. The very recollection of him in absence brought no small good to his constant companions and followers; for even in his light moods they gained no less from his society than when he was serious.

Thus he would often say he was “in love”; but clearly his heart was set not on those who were fair to outward view, but on those whose souls excelled in goodness. These excellent beings he recognized by their quickness to learn whatever subject they studied, ability to remember what they learned, and desire for every kind of knowledge on which depend good management of a household and estate and tactful dealing with men and the affairs of men. For education would make such beings not only happy in themselves, and successful in the management of their households, but capable of conferring happiness on their fellow-men and on states alike. His method of approach varied. To those who thought themselves possessed of natural endowments and despised learning, he explained that the greater the natural gifts, the greater is the need of education; pointing out that thoroughbreds by their spirit and mettle develop into serviceable and splendid creatures, if they are broken in as colts, but if unbroken, prove intractable and sorry jades; and high-bred puppies, keen workers and good tacklers of game, make first-rate hounds and useful dogs, if well trained, but, if untrained, turn out stupid, crazy, disobedient brutes. It is the same with human beings. The most highly gifted, the youths of ardent soul, capable of doing whatever they attempt, if educated and taught their duty grow into excellent and useful men; for manifold and great are their good deeds. But untrained and untaught, these same become utterly evil and mischievous; for without knowledge to discern their duty, they often put their hand to vile deeds, and through the very grandeur and vehemence of their nature, they are uncontrollable and intractable: therefore manifold and great are their evil deeds.

Those who prided themselves on riches and thought they had no need of education, supposing that their wealth would suffice them for gaining the objects of their wishes and winning honor among men, he admonished thus. “Only a fool” he said, “can think it possible to distinguish between things useful and things harmful without learning: only a fool can think that without distinguishing these he will get all he wants by means of his wealth and be able to do what is expedient: only a simpleton can think that without the power to do what is expedient he is doing well and has made good or sufficient provision for his life: only a simpleton can think that by his wealth alone without knowledge he will be reputed good at something, or will enjoy a good reputation without being reputed good at anything in particular.”

 

Vocabulary Builder

 Look up each of the following words in a dictionary and write the definition on a sheet of paper:

recollection

mettle

splendid

ardent

manifold

vile

admonish

suffice

expedient

provision

Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle (Introduction to Western Civilization 3.10)

Because of the excellent education they received and the freedom they had to develop and share their own ideas, the Athenians produced some of the greatest thinkers in all of human history. Among these thinkers are three men, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, whose ideas have influenced nearly everyone since then. All three of these men were philosophers. The word “philosophy” means “love of wisdom” in Greek. Philosophers are people who use reason to search for the truth about important things like human life, God, and nature.

While there were many philosophers before Socrates, Socrates is almost always considered the greatest of philosophers and so the Greek who was most important in beginning the Greek tradition of philosophy. Within his lifetime, Socrates became very well known for wandering around the agora, the marketplace in the center of Athens where all of the men went to meet. There, he would ask people questions about what they believed. He would try to figure out what people believed and why they believed those things. Through his questions, many people discovered that they could not explain their beliefs well or did not have good reasons for believing those things. It was asking too many questions that got Socrates in trouble.

Socrates was put on trial in Athens in 399 BC. He was charged with two crimes. His first crime, they said, was introducing new gods. By this, they meant that Socrates was encouraging people to question the existence of the traditional gods of the Greeks, the gods of Mount Olympus, and was encouraging them instead to worship other gods. His second crime, his accusers claimed, was corrupting the youth. By this they meant that Socrates was encouraging young people to question their parents and other authorities. They believed that by asking so many questions and making people look bad Socrates was leading the young men of Athens to disrespect for their elders.

At his trial, Socrates defended himself by claiming that he had committed neither of these crimes. Instead, he said that he had been led by God to do what he did. Years ago, said Socrates, a man had gone to the Oracle of Apollo, a temple where people went to ask for advice and wisdom from the god Apollo, in the Greek city of Delphi. The man had asked the god there who was the wisest man in the world. The god had told him that Socrates was the wisest man in the world.

When Socrates was told of Apollo’s answer, he could not believe that he was the wisest man in the world. He set out to prove the god wrong. He went to various people he thought must be wiser than himself and asked them questions to find out if they were indeed wise. After questioning many people, Socrates concluded that most people believe they are wise but really are not. Socrates understood that he was the wisest man in the world because he was the only man who knew he was not wise. He said that since that time God had made him continue to question people in his search for wisdom.

Of course, the jury at his trial was not happy with this. They found Socrates guilty of both charges and sentenced him to death. Socrates was executed a few days later. He was forced to drink a poison called hemlock. Socrates was 70 years old when he died.

One of Socrates’s young students, a boy named Plato, grew up to write many books about Socrates and his ideas. Plato also founded a school called the Academy where he taught young men about Socrates and Socrates’s ideas. In his books, Plato continued the tradition that Socrates’s had started of questioning everything in a search for perfect wisdom.

One of Plato’s most important ideas is his theory of the forms. Plato believed that we can know what something is only because we already have, in our souls, a perfect idea of that thing. For example, even though all apples look different when we look at each one of them closely, we can recognize any apple as an apple because we know, somewhere inside of us, what a perfect apple looks like. This is also how we judge whether an apple is a good apple or a bad apple. The more similar to the perfect apple (the form) it is, the closer it is to being a good apple. The further it is from looking like the perfect apple (the form), the closer it is to being a bad apple or perhaps not even being an apple at all.

If there are perfect apples, Plato said, there must also be perfect human beings. Plato believed that human souls are made of three parts: desire, will, and reason. Desire is what makes us want things. Will is how we control our wants. And reason is what helps us decide which desires to follow and which ones not to. If these three are not properly balanced, a person becomes bad. A person who lets their desires rule them, for example, might steal whatever they want or hit people just because they get mad. Instead, said Plato, we have to learn how to bring all three of these parts of our souls into harmony. The reason should help us decide which desires are good and which are bad and the will should help direct us to the right things. If someone balances the three parts of their soul, they will become a virtuous person. A virtuous person, says Plato, is the perfect kind of person.

Plato had many students at his Academy. One of them was Aristotle, who went on to found his own school called the Lyceum. Aristotle developed a philosophy that was both very similar to Plato’s and also different in some important ways.

Aristotle believed that the one thing that all people want is happiness. He said that everything else we do we do for some other purpose. For example, people like money, but we like money because we can buy things with it. We buy these things because they make us happy. Therefore, everything we do we do for happiness.

Aristotle went on to explain that each thing functions best when it does what it was made to do. The hammer functions best when it is used to hammer in nails. The tree functions best when it is allowed to grow large and bear fruit. Human beings, then, will function best if they do what they were made to do. And, if they are allowed to function best, they will be happiest.

He then explained that the function of human beings is in the virtues. Human beings were made to behave virtuously. Humans must, then, be virtuous in order to be truly happy.

In addition to his ideas about virtue and happiness, Aristotle is also famous for his scientific research. He wrote some of the earliest books on topics in science, including zoology and biology. He used to spend much of his time walking up and down the shore of the Aegean Sea near his home, looking for new plant and animal specimens that washed up.

Although Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were different from each other in some of their ideas, they did have some important things in common. First, all three of them knew that virtue is very important. They recognized that without virtue a person can never be completely happy and fulfilled. All three of them were also very curious about people and about the world around them. The ideas of these three men continue to influence us in many ways even today.

 

Review Questions

 1. What were the two crimes for which Socrates was executed?

2. What was the name of the school founded by Plato?

3. In a paragraph, describe what Aristotle believed people had to do in order to be happy.

 

Vocabulary Words

Philosophy – in Greek, “philosophy” means “love of wisdom;” philosophers are people who use reason to search for the truth about important things like human life, God, and nature.

Reason – the ability of the human mind to think, understand, and form judgments.

Primary Source: From the “Moralia” by Plutarch (ca. 100 AD) (Introduction to Western Civilization 3.9)

Plutarch was a Roman author who lived in 46-120 AD. He is most famous for the many biographies he wrote about important people of the Greek and Roman worlds. The selections below are about Sparta and are from his “Moralia,” a collection of short stories and sayings.

35. [In Sparta], when the time had arrived during which it was the custom for the free boys to steal whatever they could, and it was a disgrace not to escape being found out, when the boys with him had stolen a young fox alive, and given it to him to keep, and those who had lost the fox came in search for it, the boy happened to have slipped the fox under his garment. The beast, however, became savage and ate through his side to the vitals; but the boy did not move or cry out, so as to avoid being exposed, and left, when they had departed, the boys saw what had happened, and blamed him, saying thatit would have been better to let the fox be seen than to hide it even unto death; but the boy said,”Not so, but better to die without yielding to the pain than through being detected because of weakness of spirit to gain a life to be lived in disgrace.

36. Some people, encountering Spartans on the road, said, “You are in luck, for robbers have just left this place,” but they said, “Egad, no, but it is they who are in luck for not encountering us.”

37. A Spartan being asked what he knew, said, “How to be free.”

55. While the games were being held at Olympia, an old man was desirous of seeing them, but could find no seat. As he went to place after place, he met with insults and jeers, and nobody made room for him. But when he came opposite the Spartans, all the boys and many of the men arose and yieldedtheir places.Whereupon the assembled multitude of Greeks expressed their approbation of the custom by applause, and commended the action beyond measure; but the old man, shaking his grey-haired head and with tears in his eyes, said, “Alas for the evil days! Because all the Greeks know what is right and fair, but the Spartans alone practice it.”

69. Another, passing by a tomb at night, and imagining that he saw a ghost, ran at it with uplifted spear, and, as he thrust at it, he exclaimed, “Where are you fleeing from me, you soul that shall die twice?”

71. Another, in the thick of the fight, was about to bring down his sword on an enemy when the recall sounded, and he checked the blow. When someone inquired why, when he had his enemy in his power, he did not kill him, he said, “Because it is better to obey one’s commander than to slay an enemy.”

 

 

 

Review Questions

 

  1. Why did all of the Spartans at the Olympic Games stand up in 55? Answer in a sentence.

 

  1. In a paragraph, describe the sort of virtues the Spartans practiced according to these selections from Plutarch’s writing.

Our Dark Age

Every period in history is remembered in popular consciousness by a set of characteristics which have attached themselves to it. Although this popular characterization of a given period is often little more than stereotype and caricature the power exerted by this collective summarization of an epoch nonetheless permanently colors perception of the period. These characterizations frequently even become the title by which the period is remembered, guaranteeing that any time the period is mentioned the immediate implication of the truth of this characterization will follow inevitably. The Renaissance, for example, is characterized as a great period of “rebirth” and of the flourishing of the arts.  The Scientific Revolution as, of course, a period of revolution in the sciences. At some point, every historian wonders how his own era will be characterized by future generations; how will the present age be remembered by those a hundred, five hundred, or a thousand years from now? What summarization or title will be bestowed upon our era? In addition, the conclusion one reaches about the reputation of the present among those of the future has imminent ramifications for potential courses of action to improve the heritage bequeathed to posterity by the current generation.

To arrive at a conclusion concerning how our age might viewed in retrospect, one of the soundest methods is the use of historical knowledge as a measuring stick by which to evaluate the present, one of its most traditional and important usages. In a comparison with previous eras in history, our age bears the most striking resemblance, unfortunate though the fact may be for us its denizens, to the two great dark ages of earlier times in Western Civilization, namely the Greek Dark Age and the Medieval Dark Age.

Both of these dark ages are characterized by the dissolution of centralized governmental and military authority. In the case of the Greek Dark Age, the authority which dissolved was that of the old order of the Greek peninsula, the Aegean Sea, and surrounding areas which is best exhibited by the wealth and power of the Minoan and Mycenaean peoples. With the onset of the Iron Age and the ostensible Dorian Invasion, however questionable the size and nature of the latter event may be, a fracturing of institutional unity gave rise to a fracturing of cultural and intellectual unity in a world of increasingly prevalent sectionalism. The inception of the second dark age of Western Civilization arose from similar circumstances. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD removed from the western half of the Mediterranean Sea and most of Western Europe the institutional and cultural structures which had maintained some level of stability in and among societies. This institutional collapse was swiftly followed by a period of rapid cultural and intellectual decline coupled with ceaseless warfare among various tribes and peoples competing for dominance within relatively insignificant realms of power.

The cataclysmic event which triggered the onset of the current dark age is almost certainly World War I. Merely contrasting a map of Europe before and after the war is ample evidence. A look at the events “on the ground,” so to speak, is even more revealing. Through  Europe, and much else of the world, political structures collapse and disappeared altogether or were replaced by ideologies which arose from the Enlightenment and post-Enlightenment eras, ranging from Marxism and other socialist philosophies to the radical, notably not Classical, forms of republicanism and democracy advocated by some 18th and 19th century thinkers. Throughout the civilized world, the old structures of government which had united various peoples under a single figure and various empires under a universal civilizational outlook were abolished. Along with these institutions went the cultural and intellectual unity of Western Civilization and of the old order in a supracivilizational sense.

Greece emerged from its dark age at about the time of the poet Homer, in the 7th century BC, and the flourishing age of Classical Greece followed quickly. The Medieval Dark Age ended with the rise of Charlemagne and the dawn of the Carolingian Renaissance at the turn of the 19th century AD. Although it is less clear in the case of the Greek Dark Age, there is sufficient evidence to establish the thesis that the various elements of a vibrant culture were kept alive during both of these dark ages by the fastidious work of certain concerned groups and individuals.

In the better documented case of the Medieval Dark Age, more often than not these individuals were the Fathers of the Church and other great Christian thinkers. Cassiodorus and Boethius, contemporaries who lived in Italy shortly after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, for example, each recognized the precarious nature of their age and the tremendous task which their circumstances had placed before them. Each sought to preserve the greatest elements of their Greco-Roman heritage while allowing these to pass through the formative lense of Christianity. The result was that when the dark age did finally end some 300 years after this men lived, the ensuing era, which lasted nearly a thousand years, was a period of rapid scientific and technological progress as well as intellectual and cultural flourishing which remains still the greatest period in all of the history of Western Civilization.

If we are greet our current circumstances soberly, we must be honest about the perilous time in which we, who wish to bear our heritage and to pass it on to future generations, find ourselves. We must work with the same assiduity as our great forebears to preserve and improve about our great Western tradition. We must form the same sorts of assemblies for this task which our fathers before us formed. And we must continue their great work. If not, our progeny will have us to blame for the destruction of the greatest civilization the world has ever known.

Athens and Sparta (Introduction to Western Civilization 3.8)

Athens and Sparta were the two most important and influential city-states of ancient Greece. They fought the Peloponnesian War against each other and continually tried to outdo each other in strength and influence. They were also quite different from each other in their ways of life. Whereas Athens was a democracy which prided itself on the freedom of each its citizens as well as on its artistic and intellectual achievements, Sparta was a militaristic society ruled  by a small group of men.

The Athenian democracy was designed to make sure that no one had too much power and that each person had the ability to have his ideas heard. The main body of the Athenian government was the Assembly, which consisted of every adult male whose parents were Athenians. The Assembly met at a place called the Forum where they would vote on important decisions for Athens.

Because each of the citizens of Athens had other business they had to attend to, such as farming or owning a store, they could not always be in the Forum to attend to matters of government. For this reason, a group of 500 members of the Assembly were chosen at random each year to form a special group called the Boule. The Boule attended to all of the daily matters of running a city. If there were any important matters to be decided, however, the Assembly had to meet and vote on them.

The Athenians were so concerned with preventing anyone from gaining and keeping too much power that even positions like judge and general were only held for short terms. Any member of the Assembly might be chosen at random to act as a member of the jury if there was a trial. Typically, Athenians juries were very large. At the trial of Socrates, for example, there were 500 jurors. In order for a person to be convicted and punished for a crime, more than half of the jurors had to be convinced that they were guilty. Athenians generals were elected by votes from the Assembly and served terms of only one year.

In order to prepare young men to participate in their democratic government, the Athenians made sure to provide them with an excellent education. Because Athenian men would spend their lives making very important decisions about government, laws, and the military, they had to know how to make good decisions. An education for Athenian boys focused on three main areas: grammar, music, and gymnastics.

Learning grammar meant learning how to read as well as how to write and speak well. To do this, Athenian boys usually spent much of their time reading the works of Homer and Herodotus, two Greek poets whom the Athenians considered the very best writers in the Greek language. They also learned the grammar of numbers, which is mathematics. The Athenians thought that learning mathematics was important because it teaches people how to think well.

For music, boys were taught how to sing and how to play an instrument. They were also taught the principles of music and the difference between good and bad music. The intent of their education in music was to teach them how to recognize and appreciate beauty.

In addition to training the mind through grammar and music, the Athenians also believed it was important to train the body through gymnastics. They said that a person should have “a sound mind in a sound body.” Athenian boys engaged in physical exercise and learned how to play sports in order to be physically fit.

While Athenian boys learned grammar, music, and gymnastics, Athenian girls were generally taught how to run a household properly. Athenian households were very large and usually included many family members as well as slaves. In order for these large households to run effectively, girls had to be trained in management as well as in all of the skills necessary to running a household, including cooking, gardening, and childcare.

As a result of their way of life, the Athenians produced many of the most important thinkers and writers of ancient Greece. Perhaps the most important thinkers of ancient Athens were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, the three philosophers who have influenced nearly all of the thought of Western Civilization in the past 2400 years. You will read about them in a subsequent chapter.

The Spartans, on the other hand, had a very different way of life. They too placed great emphasis on the education of boys, but Spartan education was very different. Immediately after birth, a Spartan baby was inspected. If any defect, such as a deformity or a weakness, was found, the baby was taken to a pit nearby the city and thrown in.

Those children who survived the inspection were allowed to go with their mothers. Boys stayed with their mothers until age seven, at which point they were taken from their homes and began their military training.

Spartan military training was called the agoge. Beginning at seven years old, boys had to live in a barracks with other boys. They were allowed very little food and almost no comfort. They were not even allowed to wear shoes and get hugs. They were given so little food that they were always hungry. The boys were encouraged to steal food from others, but were punished severely if they were caught. The punishment was not for stealing, however; it was for getting caught. The boys were given only a single cloak to wear, no matter how cold or hot the weather was. They spent almost their entire day exercising and marching. As a result, Spartan boys became very disciplined and very strong.

While Spartan girls were not taken away from their mothers as the boys were, they also were expected to exercise and become strong. It was believed that strong women would have strong children who would be great warriors for Sparta. Spartan mothers encouraged their sons to always be strong and brave. When the Spartan warriors marched off to battle, their mothers and wives would gather to watch them leave, encouraging them by telling them to “come back with your shield or on it.” In other words, they told their sons and husbands to either win (“come back with your shield”) or to die and be carried back on their shield (“or on it”).

Sparta’s government was an oligarchy, which is a system of government in which a small group of people rule. In Sparta, there were two kings, both of whom had to agree in order for a decision to be made. There was also a council of elders, who were the oldest and most experienced Spartan men and advised the kings. Like Athens, Sparta also had an assembly, but the Spartan Assembly did not discuss and make decisions like the Athenian Assembly did. Instead, the kings would present their ideas to the assembly and the members of the assembly, which included almost all of the adult Spartan men, would shout “yes” or “no.” Whichever side was loudest won.

Because Spartan men and women were expected to spend most of their time preparing for war, they did not have much time to do all of the work that has to be done, like growing food and selling things. Instead, the Spartans had many slaves to do these jobs for them. These slaves, called helots, were treated like cattle by the Spartans and could be killed without punishment at any time. There were ten times as many helots as Spartans, but because the Spartans kept themselves strong and disciplined the helots were unable to fight them and gain their freedom.

Unlike the Athenians, the Spartans did not spend much time on things like reading, writing, music, and poetry. As a result, the Spartans did not produce much great writing and philosophy like the Athenians did. They did, however, produce the greatest soldiers in history. It was the strength of these soldiers that made it possible for only 300 Spartans to hold off the entire Persian army at the Battle of Thermopylae during the Greco-Persian Wars. Through their disciplined way of life, the Spartans were able to preserve the Greek tradition of independence and freedom.

Although Athens and Sparta are different in many ways, what they both had in common is their love for liberty. A Spartan soldier was once asked what it was that he had learned through all of the exercise and discipline he had received during his training in the agoge. His response was that he had learned “how to be free.”

 

Review Questions

 1. What were the two most important and influential city-states of ancient Greece?

2. In a paragraph, compare and contrast these two city-states.

 

Vocabulary Words

 democracy – a system of government in which the people rule themselves by voting on decisions

oligarchy – a system of government in which a state is ruled by a small group of people

Primary Source: From Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War (Introduction to Western Civilization 3.7)

The historian Thucydides was in Athens when the plague struck. After getting sick, he recovered from the plague and survived. In his History of the Peloponnesian War, written in about 400 BC, he describes the symptoms of the plague that he observed in others as well as what he himself experienced.

As a rule, however, there was no ostensible cause; but people in good health were all of a sudden attacked by violent heats in the head, and redness and inflammation in the eyes, the inward parts, such as the throat or tongue, becoming bloody and emitting an unnatural and fetid breath. These symptoms were followed by sneezing and hoarseness, after which the pain soon reached the chest, and produced a hard cough. When it fixed in the stomach, it upset it; and discharges of bile of every kind named by physicians ensued, accompanied by very great distress. In most cases also an ineffectual retching followed, producing violent spasms, which in some cases ceased soon after, in others much later. Externally the body was not very hot to the touch, nor pale in its appearance, but reddish, livid, and breaking out into small pustules and ulcers. But internally it burned so that the patient could not bear to have on him clothing or linen even of the very lightest description; or indeed to be otherwise than stark naked. What they would have liked best would have been to throw themselves into cold water; as indeed was done by some of the neglected sick, who plunged into the rain-tanks in their agonies of unquenchable thirst; though it made no difference whether they drank little or much. Besides this, the miserable feeling of not being able to rest or sleep never ceased to torment them. The body meanwhile did not waste away so long as the distemper was at its height, but held out to a marvel against its ravages; so that when they succumbed, as in most cases, on the seventh or eighth day to the internal inflammation, they had still some strength in them. But if they passed this stage, and the disease descended further into the bowels, inducing a violent ulceration there accompanied by severe diarrhea, this brought on a weakness which was generally fatal. For the disorder first settled in the head, ran its course from thence through the whole of the body, and even where it did not prove mortal, it still left its mark on the extremities; for it settled in the privy parts, the fingers and the toes, and many escaped with the loss of these, some too with that of their eyes. Others again were seized with an entire loss of memory on their first recovery, and did not know either themselves or their friends.

 

Review

 Write a summary, using your own words, of Thucydides’s description of the plague’s symptoms.

The Peloponnesian War (Introduction to Western Civilization 3.6)

Following the Greco-Persian Wars, two Greek city-states emerged as particularly strong and important. One was Athens, the home of democracy, which, under the wise leadership of a man named Pericles, had steadily built up a large navy that allowed it to control an empire around the Aegean Sea. The other was Sparta, the city of well-trained and courageous warriors in the southern part of the Greek peninsula, called the Peloponnesus. Although they had been allies throughout the Greco-Persian Wars, the two had been rivals in power for some time. They finally began to battle each other for dominance in 431 BC.

The war between the two city-states was lengthy and often difficult because they were so mismatched in their strengths. Whereas the Athenians had a large and powerful navy, the Spartans had a strong army. As a result, the Athenians were strongest at sea while the Spartans were strongest on land. Each tried to fight the other in that area where it had its strength and avoid fighting where it had its weakness.

Early in the war, Sparta gained the upper hand by using its strength on land to surround the city of Athens. Their plan was to cut off supplies coming to Athens from the outside. They hoped that by not allowing food and other necessities into the city the Athenians would be forced to send out their army to battle them. And they knew that the Athenian army could not stand up against their powerful warriors.

The Athenians were forced to abandon the farms around their city to the Spartan army now surrounding them, but they were able to bring food and supplies into their city by sea. They used their strong navy to have food shipped to them from their colonies. While the Spartan siege did not prevent supplies from coming into Athens, it did keep the people contained in the city. All of the people of Athens were forced into a densely packed area inside the city’s center. The result was that a disease broke on near the beginning of the siege and spread quickly among the people.

The plague in Athens killed more than 25% of the population, one in every four people. Even those who did not die often got sick with the disease and had to endure its horrible symptoms. Even if a person recovered, they often were left permanently disabled by the plague.

In spite of the plague, the Athenians refused to surrender to the Spartans. In order to break the stalemate, each side tried to convince the other city-states of Greece to join them. The Athenians used their powerful navy to continue to force other city-states into submission and join their side. In 415-413 BC, however, this policy went horribly wrong for the Athenians. They attempted to invade Sicily, an island many miles away from Athens. The Sicilians, however, defeated the Athenians and slaughtered 40,000 soldiers from Athens and the city-states allied with Athens.

In the end, the plague and the disaster of the Sicilian Expedition weakened Athens so severely that they had to surrender to the Spartans. The Spartans considered destroying the city and enslaving the people, but decided against it. Instead, they tried to put an end to the Athenian democracy by making Athens an oligarchy like themselves. The attempt to change Athens’s government to an oligarchy resulted in the murder of many important Athenians and a great deal of tumult in the city. The attempt eventually failed and Athens’s democracy was restored.

Following the Peloponnesian War, neither Athens nor Sparta ever regained the strength each had formerly possessed. Both were so weakened by the war that they had no choice but to stop fighting each other. While they continued to influence the other Greek city-states with their ideas, neither was able to establish a dominant position over the other Greek city-states again.

 

Review Questions

 1. Which two Greek city-states fought the Peloponnesian War against each other?

2. Who won the Peloponnesian War?

 

 Vocabulary Words

 democracy – a system of government in which the people rule themselves by voting on decisions

oligarchy – a system of government in which a state is ruled by a small group of people